Even where taken by organisations within our remit, there are certain types of action which we may not investigate. For example, we cannot look at complaints which relate to the judicial or legislative functions of organisations within her remit.

There are also certain types of administrative action outside our remit. The most common types of such excluded action that people complain about are public service personnel matters, the commercial or contractual transactions of public organisations, administrative action taken on judicial authority, and the conduct or commencement by public organisations of legal proceedings.


To be eligible, a complaint must constitute a claim that the person aggrieved has suffered injustice due to maladministration. We cannot look at complaints that the law is wrong or unfair, that a public organisation has adopted an unpopular or unwelcome policy or has taken action which someone simply disagrees with, or where the complainant has not been adversely affected by the actions complained about.

Properly made by a suitable person

To be properly made, a complaint must have been made in writing to an MP who, with the consent of the complainant, has referred it to us and asked us to investigate it. There is no statutory requirement for an MP referral to be made in writing, although most such referrals are made in this way – as this ensures that the MP and we both have an adequate record of their actions on any complaint. We have standard complaint forms which may help you and the complainant present their case; these are available here. We also have information leaflets which may be useful when making or referring a complaint; these are available here

In addition, the law does not require an individual to go through their own constituency MP. Any MP is able to refer any complaint, although as a matter of practice it is normally the case that MPs only become involved in complaints from people in their own constituency. Whether or not to refer any complaint is a matter solely for the MP concerned.

In general terms, complaints must also be made by the person directly affected by the action complained about – although, where that person has died or is unable to act for themselves, other suitable people can act on their behalf.

In time

To be in time, a complaint must have been made to the MP within a period of twelve months since the complainant first knew about the matters they have complained about. We have discretion in special circumstances to waive this requirement, but normally only do so where there are good reasons for the delay in making a complaint.

Not premature

A complaint is treated as premature if it has not already been put to the organisation complained about or if that organisation has not had a proper opportunity to respond to the complaint or, where appropriate, to put matters right. Where a public organisation has established a second-tier complaints handling organisation, we normally expect people to seek to resolve their complaints by contacting that organisation before coming to us. We will, however, sometimes look at otherwise premature complaints if the complainant provides good reasons for us doing so.

Adding value

In order to focus our resources on those cases where we might best be able to help people, before taking on any complaint within our remit we ask three further questions: whether there is sufficient indication within the material provided to us by the complainant that the organisation complained about has acted improperly or unfairly, whether there is evidence that no remedy for any injustice or hardship claimed by the complainant has been provided, and whether any intervention by us can reasonably achieve more for the complainant.

Where we decline to carry out an investigation we will explain the reasons for this.

We have put together a checklist to make it easier for you to consider whether to refer a complaint to us. The checklist looks at some of the key questions that we consider before deciding whether or not to investigate a complaint. It also highlights what we need from you to ensure that we can deal with the complaint as quickly as possible. You can download the checklist here  (457kb).